Feed the Future
This project is part of the U.S. Government's global hunger and food security initiative.

Feed the Future Impact Evaluation: Gender and Groundnut Value Chains in Zambia

The Zambia Gender and Groundnut Value Chains impact evaluation tested the hypothesis that the gender mainstreaming interventions implemented by two Feed the Future mechanisms—PROFIT+ and Better Life Alliance—assisted in maintaining or increasing women’s control over groundnut production, marketing, and proceeds as efforts at commercialization increased.

Evaluation methods included a baseline (2014) and end line (2017) quantitative longitudinal household survey and qualitative study. The quantitative component employed a quasi-experimental design in which pre- and post-differences in outcomes were compared between project and comparison domains to measure the impact of PROFIT+ and Better Life Alliance. Analysis included descriptive frequencies, cross tabulations, and tests of statistical significance for primary outcomes. Impact analyses were conducted for selected primary outcomes using the difference-in-differences model. The qualitative component was comprised of in depth interviews and focus group discussions with beneficiaries to contextualize quantitative findings.

There was a significant increase in the quantity of groundnuts sold/bartered from baseline to end line in both the project and comparison domains among households that grew groundnuts both seasons, and the increase was significantly higher in the project domain. Women’s participation in groundnut production, marketing, and use of proceeds was maintained as efforts to commercialize groundnuts expanded. Qualitative findings indicate that beneficiaries perceived that savings and lending communities and the gender messages promoted by PROFIT+ and Better Life Alliance impacted women’s empowerment. Evaluation findings suggest that PROFIT+ and Better Life Alliance contributed to both groundnut commercialization and maintaining women’s participation in production, marketing, and use of proceeds.